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Citadel of the Ho Dynasty

 Location: In communes of Vinh Tien, Vinh Long, Vinh Quang, Vinh Yen, Vinh Phuc, Vinh Ninh, Vinh Khang, Vinh Thanh and Vinh Loc Town, Vinh Loc District, Thanh Hoa Province, about 150km from Ha Noi.

Characteristics: The citadel of the Ho Dynasty is considered as the only stone citadel remaining in Southeast Asia and is one of the few remains in the world.

 

(TITC) - The citadel of the Ho Dynasty was built for 3 months in 1397 by Ho Quy Ly who was the highest-ranking mandarin of Tran Dynasty. According to the feng shui principles, it was sited in a landscape of great scenic beauty on an axis joining the Tuong Son and Don Son mountains in a plain between the Ma and Buoi rivers. After the citadel was completed, Ho Quy Ly forced King Tran Thuan Tong to move the capital from the citadel of Thang Long (Ha Noi) to Thanh Hoa. In 1400, Ho Quy Ly crowned to replace King Tran and renamed the country as Dai Ngu, the citadel of the Ho Dynasty official became the capital citadel from 1400 to 1407 with the name of Tay Do. The citadel is known as many other names, such as: An Ton, Tay Kinh, Tay Giai, Thach Thanh.

The citadel of the Ho Dynasty is an architectural masterpiece of the 14th century with impressive architecture of the walls and other parts. Thanks to the unique construction techniques, all the major stone sections are intact and have not been affected by time and weather or by recent urban encroachment. The citadel buildings represent an outstanding example of a new style of Southeast Asian imperial city with a combination between the Vietnamese architecture and the unique building techniques of Viet Nam, Southeast Asia and Eastern Asia.

The complex of the citadel of the Ho Dynasty includes Thanh Noi (Inner Citadel), Hao Thanh, La Thanh and Nam Giao Altar. Thanh Noi is the main architectural work of the citadel, with a circumference of 3,508, an area of 142.2ha. The citadel is fairly square with about 877m long north and south sides, 879.3m long east side and 880m long west side. The wall of the citadel is 5-6m high on average. The highest wall section is the front gate with the height of 10m. Scientists estimated that the entire wall was made of 25,000m³ of stones. Inside the stone wall was another wall made of approximately 80,000m³ of soil. Thanh Noi has four domed gates called the South, North, West and East with the average height from 6m to 8m. The South gate is the main gate and has three doors, other gates has only one door. According to the documents, there were palaces in the Thanh Noi such as Hoang Nguyen, Nhan Tho, Phu Cuc, Dong Cung, Dong Thai Mieu, Tay Thai Mieu, Diem Canh… However, now Thanh Noi remains some relics such as a part of the citadel’s wall and four gates, vestiges of lakes, a couple of stone dragons with sophisticated carving features, foundation of Thanh Noi architecture, Hoa Nhai marble-paved road, stone balls, stone bullets, pottery, the Southern gate precinct and valuable objects with specific characteristics of Tran - Ho dynasties culture.

Hao Thanh is the system of water trench surrounded the Thanh Noi and connected with Buoi River through a canal at the southeast corner of the citadel. La Thanh, the outer wall of the citadel built to protect the Thanh Noi was home to residents in the citadel. It was approximately 10km in perimeter and its construction based on the natural terrain. Nam Giao Altar is located in the southwest of Don Son Mountain, on the spiritual pathway directly connected with the South gate of Thanh Noi, about 2.5km away from the citadel of the Ho Dynasty to the southeast. This is the place to sacrifice to the heaven; pray for harmonious rain and wind, peaceful country and happy people, prosperous and everlasting dynasty.

Citadel of the Ho Dynasty was recognized as a World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO in 2011 and a special national relic site in 2012.

 

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